Getting to know about Australia
Official name: Commonwealth of Australia
Founding date: January 1, 1901
Population statistics: 21,259,972 people (2008)
Population density: 3.7 people per square kilometre
Area: 7,686,850 square kilometers
Government system: Parliamentary democracy
Head of State: Queen Elizabeth II
Currency: Australian Dollar AUD
Main natural resources: coal, iron, copper, silver, uranium, diamonds, natural gas, oil
International telephone area code: +61
Australia is the sixth-largest country in the world. The country is divided into six states and two special administrative regions-Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, Western Australia; the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory. In terms of its population in such a large area, Australia is sparsely populated than most countries, and even in urban areas, it appears empty.
Australia has a long history of peace. Because of its isolation, Australia has never fought for the purpose of building a country or protecting its own country. It has participated in wars mainly because of coalition forces. The conditions of all levels of government in Australia have always been stable, which also contributes to the peace and prosperity of Australia itself.
According to estimates, Aboriginal Australians have lived in the area for 60,000 years. This is the nation with the longest cultural history in the world. Aboriginal culture is characterized by the use of different languages and traditional family tribal patterns. Long before the Europeans came to Australia to cultivate, fishermen from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea had already arrived on the north coast of Australia to trade with the aborigines. Australia was originally called New Holland because the Dutch first came here for expeditions. The British occupied this land in 1788 and used it as a place to exile criminals. In 1901, Australia established the political system of the federal government, and today it is still a member of the Great Britain Association (the Queen of England is also the Queen of Australia).
During the gold rush of the 1850s and World War II, a large number of immigrants flooded in from China and the European continent. This has made Australia a gathering place for all kinds of cultures. At present, four out of ten Australians are immigrants or children of immigrants.
After establishing its own government system, 2001 marked the 100th anniversary of Australia becoming the Commonwealth of Australia. Does the Australian government want to become an independent government? Should we leave the Great Britain Association? It is an issue that Australia is now debating. Currently, a Governor-General represents the Queen in Australia to exercise her political obligations, and the Queen herself is considered a noble and formal role in Australia. As a result of many discussions, Australia has positioned itself as an Asia-Pacific country in many respects, rather than as part of the United Kingdom. Its main economic partner is in Asia, it is closer to Asia, and more and more Asian people visit or emigrate to Australia.
Another remarkable change is the formal beginning of seeking reconciliation with the indigenous Australians. The indigenous Australians were previously excluded by European immigrants. The purpose of reconciliation is to give the earliest residents of this continent higher respect. Establish a better harmony between cultures. In May 2000, thousands of people marched peacefully in various cities to show their support for reconciliation. The crowd gathered on the Sydney Bridge took five hours to completely disband, and “sorry” was written in the sky to express their apologies. There are still many problems waiting for Australians to resolve, and the debate will continue.
Australia’s original wealth mainly came from agriculture and mining, which is still a considerable advantage compared with other developed countries. Agriculture, animal husbandry and mining are important economies of this country, and they are a very prominent part of the country’s image.
Australia is a strong exporting country and the world’s largest wool supplier. Other major exports include wheat, barley, sugar, coal and iron ore. More than half of them are exported to Asia. International education is Australia’s eighth largest export project.
Geography and Climate
Australia is the smallest, flattest, lowest terrain and the driest continent except for Antarctica. Due to its ancient topography, it is also called the oldest continent. The landscapes that can be seen everywhere in Australia today were formed millions of years ago and are older than those in Europe and North America today.
The indigenous Australians do not have the habit of building large-scale construction projects, so there are no buildings such as Greek goddess temples or Hindu temples in Australia. But in other parts of the world, there are no such wonders as Uluru (also known as Ayers Rock) or Kata Tjuta. Australia covers a large area, so there are several climate zones in it. There are 11 major deserts in the central and western parts of the country, but not many people live in these areas.
The mildest climate is on the eastern coast. The mountains follow the Great Diving Range. Most of the population lives in this area (from Queensland through New South Wales to Victoria). There are many beautiful rainforests and Australia’s most famous beaches. At the southern end, there are also beautiful cities such as Adelaide and Perth. Compared to the Himalayas, these mountains are not high, and the mountains at the southeast end (Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania) are only high mountains with occasional snow. Winter is very mild in other parts of Australia, and snow is rarely seen in any major city. The northern tip of Australia has a tropical climate similar to that of neighbouring Asia. However, this place is full of rugged canyons, cliffs, and rainforest swamps, because of the difficulty of transportation construction, so there are few people.
Australia’s flora and fauna evolved in isolated environments, resulting in unique species in the world’s flora and fauna. Of the 295 species of mammals in Australia, 250 species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. The most famous ones include kangaroos, koalas, wombats and dingoes. You may not see koalas and dinghies in the wild, but in many areas, kangaroos, wombats and small kangaroos are very common.
The entire coastline has a variety of colourful fish schools and other breathtaking marine life, such as seals, fairy penguins, dolphins, and whales. Dolphins can often be seen on any coast. Whales are mostly found between the eastern and southern coastlines. They migrate north in June and July and return to the south in September and November. The shark problem is not as serious as many people think, but if you go to the beach to play in the water, it is recommended that you do not leave the alert area for safety.
There are many birds in Australia, and large groups of snow-clothed mothers, finches, peach parrots and parrots can be seen everywhere in cities and towns. There are also interesting lizards, frogs, snakes and spiders. Many of them are gorgeous but not toxic. However, visitors should pay special attention to two deadly spiders in Australia (redback spiders and umbrella spiders). They are often found near homes. Because there are currently treatments available, there are not many deaths. But be careful in the dark and remember to wear gloves when doing gardening work.
Australia has 11 world heritage sites, 5800 protected areas and sea areas. However, there are still many endangered creatures, such as the platypus. The alien species of rabbits, foxes and cats continue to threaten the local ecology.
Australia’s sunny climate naturally forms the lifestyle of outdoor activities. For Australians, sports are the most common pastime. Australia is most famous internationally for rugby and cricket. “Footy” refers to the following three forms of rugby (depending on where you are in Australia): Aussie Rules, Rugby League and Rugby Union. For Australians, “Footy” does not refer to football. On any Sunday in winter, you can experience a rugby game in many places. International competitions were held in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Tasmania.
Australians’ favourite sports are (regardless of gender): aerobics, golf, tennis, netball, lawn bowling, swimming, basketball, kung fu and cricket and bowling. Most of the larger towns have indoor sports fields that host various improved football, cricket, netball and volleyball. You can form a sports team with your friends, or join a regional team.
Australians take advantage of the blessed wild areas for outdoor activities, such as forest walks, rock climbing and canoeing. Many people are engaged in sailing, surfing, windsurfing and water skiing in water activities in lakes, rivers, seas and other waters. Winter is here, it’s okay! Just go to the mountains to live the annual ski addiction. All the equipment and equipment required for these sports can be rented at a reasonable rent in a sports or camping supply store.
The performance of Australians in various arts also showed creativity and depth. Australian artworks often reveal the influence of multiculturalism and win international awards. Film works that have won awards include pianist, desert enchantress, and strictly ballroom. The Australian-born actors shine in Hollywood movies; Nicole Kidman, Cate Blanche, Russell Crowe, etc. Is a well-known movie star. The literary award-winning writers include Thomas Kenealy and Peter Carey. Reading the works of these writers can give readers a glimpse of the scales of life in Australia. The main performing groups are the Australian Ballet, the Bell Shakespeare Theatre Company, The Sydney Dance Company and Bangarra Dance Theatre. A series of student performances can be enjoyed at relatively low prices in community art centres and art schools.
Australia’s National Art Gallery in Canberra exhibits various themed works every year. Many long-term exhibitions do not charge tickets, and large-scale exhibitions also have student discounts. Visitors can find art galleries of different sizes everywhere in Australia, but don’t underestimate these small art galleries in rural areas. They may find some amazing paintings, ceramics and wooden works.
In recent years, several Australian orchestras have become famous all over the world; including Savage Garden, Kylie Mino, and Silverchair. Radio Australia broadcasts a large number of popular music from the top 40 in the United States and the United Kingdom, but local orchestras still have eye-catching performances. Triple J public radio station chooses some less famous local orchestra songs and selectively plays new music from all over the world; including “world music”. Most places also hold annual jazz and country music festivals, and there are professional symphony orchestras in every capital city.
Aboriginal Australians refer to Aborigines and island people from the Torres Strait. Aboriginal art has undergone a renaissance in recent years, and a wide range of artworks and performances have been displayed all over the world. Modern artworks not only show traditional forms and techniques, but also show how aboriginal culture is integrated into modern society, and reveal the influence of Western culture. Famous modern artists include Emily Kame Kngawarreye, Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarrie and Sally Morgan.
Australia is not as convenient as Taiwan because of its large size and high installation cost. Therefore, it is recommended that you can use the school library or computer classroom network. Usually, the school network service is free or only a small fee is charged. There are two types of Australian networks. One is Dial-up Internet, which is a prepaid system. It is recommended for those who cannot apply for ADSL temporarily. The other is a broadband network (ADSL), which has a higher personal rental cost. It charges differently depending on the download volume and speed. There are many suppliers, it is recommended that you can compare the quality and charging standards. Internet downloads in Australia are usually not unlimited (charges vary according to the number of downloads), so it is more economical to share the rent with your roommates and use unlimited downloads.
In Australia, it is very convenient to use public telephones. However, unlike Taiwan, as far as local calls are concerned, public telephones in Australia are charged per call. A local call is 0.5 yuan. If you make calls to mobile phones, long-distance calls to other cities or regions, or overseas calls, you will be charged by the hour. After arriving in Australia, if an international student rents an apartment, he or she can consider whether to install an indoor phone. Although a monthly fee is required, the cost of using a home phone is relatively cheap (local calls are 0.25 yuan each time). In addition, with an indoor phone, you can also use the dial-up network to make an indoor phone call at a lower cost.
In Australia, the use of mobile phones is very common. Many international students use mobile phones in Australia. Taiwanese mobile phones can be used in Australia, as long as you replace the SIM card inside. It is recommended that you go to a telecommunications company to apply for a door number when you arrive in Australia. There are many telecommunications companies in Australia. You should first compare the telephone charges and service coverage. The larger ones are Telstra and Optus. You can also use an international phone prepaid card to call relatives and friends in Taiwan. Such a calling card allows you to dial back to Taiwan at a lower rate, and the call quality is good. In Australia, there are many types of prepaid cards for international calls. You should compare the call quality and price first.