Location: North to the Arctic Sea, west to the Atlantic Ocean, south to the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea, Ouya Jie Mountain-Ula Mountain, Caucasus Mountain

Western Europe: Western Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe-Implementation of Democracy

Eastern Europe: Eastern Europe, Europe and Russia-once ruled by the Soviet Union, economic development is relatively backward.

Terrain: European terrain is dominated by mountains, hills and plains.

Alps: the highest mountain in Europe, the roof of Europe,

New Fold Mountains: The African section pushes northward, forming the Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians, etc…

Plain: The Great European Plain (extending from the south of England to the north of Georgia) ─ east to the Ou-Russian Plain

Northern Europe: The main terrain is Scandinavia, with high latitudes and developed glacial terrain

The main part of southern Europe is the peninsula: Iberi, Italy, and the Balkans. The islands are mountainous and hilly.

Europe has many bays, peninsulas and islands with tortuous coastlines, which are conducive to maritime traffic



1. Latitude: mid-latitude, temperate climate
2. Westerly wind and warm current: Affected by westerly wind and North Atlantic warm current, winter is warmer and wetter than the same latitude
3. Terrain: The mountains run east-west, and the westerly wind can go deep inland, without a desert climate


Cultural characteristics:

Ethnicity, language:
Germanic nations: Western Europe, Northern Europe (Germanic, English is the most common)
Latin people: Southern Europe (Latin)
Slavic peoples: Eastern Europe (Slavic)



Protestantism (Christianity): Around the origin of the Industrial Revolution, mainly Western Europe and Northern Europe
Roman Catholic Church (Catholic): In Southern Europe, the Holy See is the centre of Catholicism in the world
Greek Orthodox Church (Orthodox Church): Eastern half of Europe
Islam (Islam): the junction of Europe and Asia

European Union: (European Union) EU: European countries are a single market, currently the world’s largest economic entity

  • Goods, labour, capital, and labour can circulate freely
  • The short-term goal of economic integration has been gradually completed (single market, euro)
  • Expect to move from economic integration to political integration